The published articles are meant to primarily educate the students in printing to supplement their knowledge in the field of Printing. These are not simple Glossary of printing terms, but to the extent possible every term has been explained in brief so that it can be of some use to the students who appear in some sort of examinations and interviews.
I served the Printing Industry for over 40 years
in various capacities, a major part in an Security Printing Organization. In order not to waste the printing and paper related knowledge which I gained over years, I decided to keep them in public domain for the reason stated in prepara. Most of the illustrations - over 90% - have been generated by me to explain the terms suitably.
While I am not sure to what extent the published content will help, if the content is going to be of use to some one in some manner, I will be greatly satisfied.
Your views may be sent to me ( for my record and correction wherever needed.



- Over 400 terms-

Click on this line to read from 'A'

Sunday, September 30, 2012

Alphabet- O /2

Oxidation: One of the chemical reaction in which certain chemicals react with the Oxygen content in the air and polymerizes or changes their physical and chemical properties. In the process of drying of the inks, one of the processes used for the drying of the ink is the Oxidation process that allow the vehicles in the inks to absorb the Oxygen and dry on the substance and binds with the material on which the ink is printed. Oxidation does not evaporate, it only polymerizes and binds with the material.
Outsourcing: The term implies that certain wok is got done on contract with some of the agencies. Outsourcing is the act of a firm contracting with another firm to provide services that might otherwise can be performed by in house workforce but in many cases there are financial advantages that come from outsourcing the work. For example many of the medium size presses may not have all the facilities or sufficient work force to undertake all the processes involved in completion of the printed work. On certain occasions it may so happen that some jobs may be received which will generate much profit and part of them can be easily done in the press itself and part to be got done on contract. In such cases the presses outsource the partial work on prevailing market rates and complete the remaining work in the press itself to raise invoices on the press name. Outsourcing in stricter meaning is the delegation of one or more processes to an external agency, who then owns, manages and administers the selected processes to an agreed standard and cost for particular period of time.
It is not necessary that the portions of the work is always physically sent to the firm with whom the work has been entrusted. Even certain portions of the work are got done inside the premises of the presses with labors from the outsourced agencies. Another example is the Printing machinery and equipment manufacturers often outsource fabrication of a certain components of the machine with their name tag, with firms who are experts in the manufacturing of the said part. This reduces the overall cost of the machineries and equipments to a great extent. Some of the work outsourced by the presses publishing the books include proof reading, editing, process work, plate making, and binding.
Off color: The color or shade which is not actually the original or standard color of a material. When it is stated ‘Off White Color’ it implies that the whiteness of the material will be a bit less compared to standard white color. Since the shade can not be expressed in terms of percentages, the word ‘Off’ is prefixed and expressed. For example ink and Paper manufacturers say Off Red color, Off Blue color, Off Grey etc to some of the special shaded tints manufactured as proprietary color for a particular firm.
Onion Skin : A lightweight paper usually used in the past air mail stationery. Such light weight paper is used on typewriter machines to produce duplicate and triplicate copies. Since they are light weight thin papers, the carbon copies obtained on the typing machines used to carry clean image . The copies made on Onion skin papers are used for record keeping purpose since the volume being thinner, they occupy less space. The name Onion skin paper is given due to its translucent surface which resembled to that of onion skin. Though lighter in weight due to the thick formation of the cotton fiber content, the paper is found to be durable.
OEM: The expansion of the three letters OEM is Original Equipment Manufacturer. Some of the original machineries and equipments may require ancillary equipments and units to support its function. It is possible that those ancillary equipments may not have been manufactured by the OEM who supplied the main machine and belonged to another group of OEM though it may not bear the label to indicate so. Without those ancillary equipments it may not be possible to work with the main machine. In such an event can the supplier of the main machine claim themselves as OEM for the set of machines? Legally speaking, yes, because the main machinery function is linked to the function of the ancillary unit and therefore the machinery design being the design of the main OEM, the ancillary unit too belong to them.
To understand the implication of read the following example:
Supposing a special functioning printing machine is supplied by a manufacturing firm called Stephen under brand name (Proprietary product) “ Beep Print” .
The machine function is linked to a ancillary unit manufactured by Siemens, Dell, Nokia, Philips or some electronic group. Some of the parts inside may have software with instruction inputs of the main machine. Some of the components of the ancillary unit may be of general items in nature and easily available in the market, and some parts may have been specially made for the Beep Print machine function. Still Stephens will only be considered as the OEM of the Beep Print along with its ancillary unit, as both the main machine and the ancillary units are interrelated and function as one unit.
OCR or OMR: Optical Character Recognition (OCR ) or Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) is an imaging technique where by the typed text, any printed matter and even the hand written texts are scanned, copied, and translated into editable word version by special software. The Optical character recognition software allows a computer program to convert handwritten or scanned letters into digital image and then with OCR software they are converted to readable text. The OMR imaging process utilize the OCR or OMR device to electronically translate the characters into codes which can then be saved as a text file thus eliminating the need for key boarding of the texts.
The printed matters can be quickly converted to text for re use thus avoiding retyping of the matters. Even PDF with tables can be converted to re-editable word document. Some of the Online sites offer free service to convert the documents on trial basis. The benefits of OCR or OMR technique is:
  • Large volumes of printed matter can be converted easily into word document without involving retyping of the entire text.
  • Speeds up the working process.
  • Reduces the cost
  • Need not keep the entire documents in storage or keep the books stored occupying lots of space . As and when needed they can be converted for updating or reprinting.
However one drawback seen in this process is that some of the converted version may not be 100% dependable and some words may have to be typed physically as the system fails to read and convert un recognizable words or sloppy hand written matter. Therefore the converted version will have to be gone through at least once to verify the converted text. 

Orthochromatic : The type of Photographic film which is sensitive to all rays of the wavelengths except Red. Therefore processing of this film can be comfortably done with Red safe light ion the dark rooms. This is best suited for processing black and white pictures.
Oblong : The term describe the print material that are printed to read on the longer side or bound on their shorter side like Albums, story books, catalogs etc instead of on the longer side .

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