The published articles are meant to primarily educate the students in printing to supplement their knowledge in the field of Printing. These are not simple Glossary of printing terms, but to the extent possible every term has been explained in brief so that it can be of some use to the students who appear in some sort of examinations and interviews.
I served the Printing Industry for over 40 years
in various capacities, a major part in an Security Printing Organization. In order not to waste the printing and paper related knowledge which I gained over years, I decided to keep them in public domain for the reason stated in prepara. Most of the illustrations - over 90% - have been generated by me to explain the terms suitably.
While I am not sure to what extent the published content will help, if the content is going to be of use to some one in some manner, I will be greatly satisfied.
Your views may be sent to me (
nrj_1945@yahoo.com) for my record and correction wherever needed.

TOTAL NO OF PRINTING TERMS

POSTED TILL NOVEMBER, 2012

- Over 400 terms-

Click on this line to read from 'A'

Friday, May 31, 2013

Survey on Excise duty Labels/ Stamps - 6

Part- 6

Written  by :  N.R. Jayaraman
In Tamilnadu seven varieties of Holographic Labels on polyester based films are issued. They have Unique codes printed both on the image as well as edge. The Labels too have machine readable feature. The production cost appears to be around 15 paisa per label.  The production/ consumption of Liquor bottle is shown below in the table.


From the above table you can see the gradual increase in the consumption of Liquor in  Tamilnadu.  The increase every year has been 6 %, 28 %, 57 %, 89 %, 112 %.  This thus hreflect on the requirement of Excise duty Labels.

The requirement of Excise Label as per above in 2007-08 works out to 11.36 crores per month.   As per the Tender floated by Tasmac the quantity of  Polyester Hologram Excise Label required per month will be approximately 25 crore Labels of size 60 mm x 15 mm. The quantity can be increased or decreased or split up at the sole discretion of the Commissioner of Prohibition and Excise. The colors of the seven varieties of Excise Labels are:-
 

  
Though we tried to get some samples, the authorities were not willing to give us the same as it was security material and needs higher authorities approval.  Therefore an illustrative model of Excise duty Label has been shown as found on the Liquor bottle.


 Tamilnadu Excise duty Label- model on bottle

The per annum requirement of Excise duty Label has been worked out and shown in a graphical form below based on the consumption pattern of various types of Liquor.  The  requirement in 2007-08  is seen to be  over 11 crore Labels per month.


Since Country Liquor is banned no Excise stamps or Labels are issued.   As far as Tamil Nadu is concerned, the entire issue of Excise duty Label and Stamps are taken care by TASMAC (Tamil Nadu Marketing Sales Corporation). Tamilnadu ranks third in alcohol consumption after Punjab and Andhra Pradesh and therefore bulk of the use of Holographic Labels are in use here. 

Also it is understood that Tamilnadu was the first state to introduce the anti counterfeitable Holographic Excise duty Labels two to three decades back which was subsequently followed by other states. The specification for the Hologram tender as seen in the Tender document floated by Tasmac is as below:

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND PRODUCT 
SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE EXCISE DUTY HOLOGRAM LABEL

(1) MASTER ORIGINATION
:   High Security Master made from True 3D and 2D/3D conventional origination system and DOT MATRIX digital origination system of minimum 12000 pixel resolution and with 4000 DPI or more dot resolution recombined together.
  • Multi level animation effect
  • Four channel effect
  • Pearl effect with hidden micro text
  • Vast raster image
  • Concealed animated image
  • Multiple LASER viewable animated covert image
  • Kinetic and diffractive animated GUILLOCHE patterns (Randomly computer generated pattern) for high security.
  • The logo or emblem and the 3D True Object as suggested by the Tendering Authority shall be incorporated in the hologram.
(2)  The suggested art work (at least 3 different designs) is to be submitted by the Tenderer containing the above security features along with the Tender Documents and Technical Specifications. The object for 3D Hologram and the design would however be finalized / furnished by the Department only at the time of placing orders. 

(3) The master may be changed at the discretion of the tendering authority at any time  during the currency of the tender and the tenderer should have the facilities to produce the master within the time frame specified by the tendering authority.

(4) Size and shape:  Rectangular ,  60 mm (Length) x 15 mm (width)
 

(5) Type and Material to be used:   Tamper evident on Metalized Polyester Film of ultra clear EMCL grade with standard quality adhesive material on the label suitable to be affixed (non manual – mechanical application) on bottle cap and partly on the neck of the glass bottle through automatic mechanical applicator. The Hologram should fix firmly to the above portions. The Hologram should be as per the design approved and finalized by the Department.  

(6) Colour:   Specific colors / Multiple colors. The Department will decide this from time to time.  

(7) Thickness:   35 to 40 Microns and suitable for automatic mechanical applicator.

(8) Mastering type : High Security Master made from true 3D and 2D/3D conventional origination system and DOT MATRIX digital origination system of minimum 12000 pixel resolution and with 4000 DPI or more dot resolution recombined together.
  • Multi level animation effect
  • Four channel effect
  • Pearl effect with hidden micro text,
  • Vast raster image
  • Concealed animated image
  • Multiple LASER viewable animated covert image Kinetic and diffractive animated GUILLOCHE patterns (Randomly computer generated pattern) for high security .
The logo or emblem and the 3D True Object as suggested by the Tendering Authority shall be incorporated in the hologram.

(9) Other features:-

  • The layers in the Hologram Excise Labels except Micro Text and LASER viewable animated covert image shall be visible to normal eyes.
  • The Hologram Labels should have serrated edges all around.
  • The Hologram shall not be affected by normal variation in atmospheric conditions.
  • The shelf life of the Hologram should be for a minimum of three years without any deformation or deterioration in normal atmospheric conditions.
(10) Coding / Serial numbering: The Hologram Labels should be compatible for Inkjet printing and also Laser etched numbering.

(11) Quality criteria: The quality and adhesion of the Holograms supplied should be suitable to the automatic mechanical applicator.


End Note: Sale of liquor in the state-run TASMAC outlets continue to be a major source of income for the Tamil Nadu government with a whopping Rs 21,680.67 crore earned as total revenue during 2012-13. Besides the revenue the Govt gets on account of Excise duty imposed for the sale of Liquor, the government also earns a revenue of Rs 1.73 crore per month approximately by the sale of excise labels an agency informs. 

 
State excise labels are being issued to Indian Made Foreign Spirit (IMFS) and beer manufacturing units and Tamil Nadu State Marketing Corporation (TASMAC) to affix them on the IMFS, beer bottles manufactured locally and those imported from other states with the aim to ensure proper accounting of excise revenue and for preventing the flow of illicit liquor into the state. At present, the average monthly requirement of excise labels is believed to be 24.8 crore, the note said.

As per another data seen, the Alcohol sales in the state from 2004 to 2008 have registered a 61% increase. Also some data for the year 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2011-2012 were available on consumption of different varieties of Liquor. This will automatically reflect the requirement of Excise Labels.  All the figures seem to be incomplete as they have not described the details of all Liquors consumed.  However see  data shown below to understand the data seen in various places.



CONCLUSION:

The article has been written to work out the average requirement of Excise duty Labels and not meant to study the sale of Liquor. Since the requirement of Excise duty  Label  is directly related to the consumption and production of Liquors, the study on Liquor consumption pattern was necessary. Many other states like Goa, Pondicherry, Maharashtra, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh too issue Excise duty Labels, but the data  could not be collected due to several constraints. However some picture were available from other sources.


Based on the entire data available and analyzing it, I presume that the requirement of Excise duty labels per month in various states where the Excise duty Labels are issued could work out to anywhere from 80 to 100 lakh Labels  per month. Finally I would like to repeat the disclaimer as stated below.

Important - Disclaimer: The writer does not assume responsibility for the data given for various states. All those have been obtained in personal meetings with various officials and the Print outs that we received, but were not signed even though some were hand written and given to us. Some information was also obtained from certain sites in internet.  Many officials in the Excise department were not willing to supply us the official copies as they considered the data to be confidential data.

However  the findings have been reproduced based on the data that we got in person, and in good faith though there is absolutely no reason to doubt that the data supplied to us will be incorrect.  At the most they may have some error margins.   The data  error margins could be 5 - 10 % as conversion from cases to bottles or bulk liters to bottles were difficult to work out since each state worked out the data  in their own  fashion.  

 -CONCLUDED-

Thursday, May 30, 2013

Survey on Excise duty Labels/ Stamps - 5

Part-5

Written  by :  N.R. Jayaraman

Uttar Pradesh

In Uttar Pradesh too Holographic Excise Labels are affixed on bottles irrespective of the Liquor. The stamps have unique code to match the year of issue. It also carry the UP Excise department Logo on the Labels. Here too the production cost per label is stated to be around 8- 8.5 paisa.


Going by the data it may be seen that the requirement has not been going up drastically and has been in the range of 7 to 8 % only.

UP Liquor Excise duty Label on a bottle


End Note:-  As per one report in the year  2009-10, the state consumed 22.92 crore liters of Country Liquor, 9.17 crore liters of Indian Made Foreign Liquor (IMFL) and 9.03 crore liters of Beer.  Based on  the data available the following Chart has been prepared indicating the requirement of Excised duty Labels per month. Also the Specification for the Excise duty Label has been given  which was seen in the Tender Document.



Specification as seen in the 2011-12 and 2012 Tender Document floated by  Uttar Pradesh Excise department:-
 
Quantity :- The total number of holograms to be supplied will be about 15 (fifteen) crore or more holograms per month. The quantity may vary. 

Type :- Master origination holographic features for high security master made on a secure system capable of generating high security masters with at least 1,00,000 dpi or more using dot matrix system with litho and 2d/3d effect which shall provide :-
  • Guilloche pattern
  • animated feature concealed animated image/text
  • 2-d/3-d depth effect
  • Fresnel with litho effect
  • Color animated multiple image
  • Four channel effect at a single point
  • Pearl effect with hidden channel effect
  • Kinetic movement effect
  • Sparkle effect
  • Embossed text effect
  • Secret data.
Non holographic features :-
  • Tamper evident,
  • Multi colour
  • Hidden text/images 0n color changing background
  • Visible text/images/design 0n demetalised area
  • NR jet numbering
  • UV numbering
  • Serrated edges
  • Chemical etching
Coding on master :-
 

Specialized code by white and colored marking for “imfl” encoded in the subsequent copies of master for Indian made foreign liquor, “cl” for country liquor, “beer” encoded in the master for beer, "lab" for low alcoholic beverages “overseas" for overseas foreign liquor, beer & wine and “wine" for wine white and colored marking as mentioned above also for the year encoded in subsequent copies of the master.
Separate three digit coding has to be provided for different varieties of liquor as per their duty structure range

Specification of the hologram :-

  • Size of the 15 mm (width) x 60 mm (length) [rectangular with hologram serrated edges and round corners] - which can be applied both automatically and manually.
  • Type should have multi- colour with temper evident stamping foil and features suitable for automatic manual application over the neck and cap of the liquor bottles. The hologram should be as per the design approved and finalized by the department.
  • Colour of different multi color for different types of the liquor [IMFL, Country liquor, Beer, overseas (IMFL hologram Beer & Wine), lab and wine which will be decided by department from time to time.
  • Visible texts design on demetalised area texts; incorporated on hologram should be crisp & clear, design on readable by naked eye. The text/images will be decided by the department from time to time.
  • Demetalised area should be at least 8 mm (l) x 15 mm
  • The text image shall be in minimum i mm size.
  • Hidden text/ visual holographic design on top layer and hidden images on text/images on different colour background on colour second layer. The hidden colour should change at changing every 45° angle. This hidden feature shall be visible background only through a special Polaroid authenticity reader. The size of this feature should be at least i0-i2 mm length x 15 mm width.

Specification of major raw materials :-
  • Polyester film
  • Type : ultra clear Emil grade
  • Thickness : 36 microns 5%
  • Printing : minimum 1.00 i 10% optical density coating
  • Metalizing : 2 micron 5%
  • Grade : food grade
Specification of the adhesive :-
  • Type : hot melt adhesive which can withstand the temperature of 70°c suitable for affixation partly on bottle cap and partly on the neck of the glass/ pet bottle.
  • Thickness : 22 gsm i 10%
  • Grade : food grade
...............to be continued

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

Survey on Excise duty Labels/ Stamps - 4

Part-4

Written  by :  N.R. Jayaraman

Madhya Pradesh

The Madhya Pradesh Excise duty Labels/ Stamps are affixed on all the bottles on the neck with a showing 'MP Excise' on each label. The Excise Labels are issued  from the Gwalior branch of the department. The production cost per label is stated to be around 7-8 paisa as per the officials. We were unable  to get the required data in all completeness.  Two figures were made available to us. One in respect of total quantity manufactured per year and another, year wise  consumption of Liquor during the corresponding year, both of which were not matching with each other. Therefore both the figures though not matching with each other were taken up for calculating the Excise duty Label requirement.  The production showed an upward trend of 32 %  and also the consumption  45 % upwards. Both the figures were in lakh bottles.  Whether sold or not, each bottle manufactured need to be regularized by affixing  Excise duty stamp.  Therefore we concluded that the average requirement of Excise duty Label based on the Production figure per month could be around 11 crore labels.  We could not get official Excise duty Label sample and therefore copied it from the bottle.  This prevented us from knowing what security features were embedded in it except to notice it to be Holographic in nature.


 Excise duty Specimen - on bottle


End Note :-    Based on the introduction of Hologram seal called HEAL (holographic excise adhesive label) introduced by the Tamilnadu Excise department, MP Govt Excise department too introduced it for affixing on the Liquor Bottles as Excise duty Label.  As per a research paper it is understood  that from the year 2007 the MP govt started procuring  Heal Labels and till  2011 the Govt has procured 72 crore of  Heal Labels for the said purpose. These labels made the Counterfeiting almost impossible as they would shred to pieces once removed from the bottle. They are also not copyable as those HEAL Labels are customized with overt and covert features.

Rajasthan

In Rajasthan Holographic Excise Labels are affixed on bottles. However in the case of Beer the Excise Label is affixed only on the case (containing 12 bottles) and not on individual bottles. Only from the year 2009- 2010 affixing the Excise duty Labels were made compulsory for Country made Liquors too. Here too the production cost per label is stated to be around 8-8.5 paisa as per the officials.
While Rajasthan Govt's  revenue from liquor in terms of money  jumped by 38 %, the hard  liquor consumption in the state declined by 56 % from 2004 till 2006-07 because of the pro-beer policy. Beer consumption saw an upswing in the state by 83 %. This thus was an encouraging news to the Excise duty Label  suppliers as loss at one end was covered by the other.  Only consumption data  of Rajasthan was available to work  out the Excise duty Label requirement as given below.  
 

Rajasthan Excise duty Label specimen- Holographic Label

 

End Note : - According to one report the requirement reportedly leaped to  25.30 crore bottles per month in the year 2011-2012  thus placing the requirement of the Excise duty Label per month as  16.75 crore Labels . The details are:-

..........to be continued

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

Survey on Excise duty Labels/ Stamps - 3

Part-3

Written  by :  N.R. Jayaraman

The Tender specification contain the following specification  for the supply of Holograms which will further be affixed on the Excise Label .
Hologram  
1) Hot Stamping Scratch type
2) Size: 15 mm x 15 mm
Hologram Master
a) State Emblem
b) Multi Channel Effect
c) Concealed Image
d) Kinetic effect and Guilloche Pattern
e) Covert Laser Readable Image
f) Micro- text
g) Nano-text
h) Raster Image
i) Any other security feature as may be found suitable.

In addition to Punjab Govt, the Union territory of Chhattisgarh Excise department too issued tender notification which in all respects were same like the Tender specification of Punjab.

Karnataka 

The Karnataka Govt Excise Department is the only known state that issues the Paper based Excise Labels with  Intaglio printing. They have 2 D bar code, Unique serial no invisible printing, Guilloche design, Intaglio printing and signature of the issuing authority on the printed Label.  They are also issued  in different colors - for use on IMP, 350 ml, 750 ml bottles. 
The three categories of Excise duty stamps issued are:


The production of Liquor Bottles from the year 2002-03 onwards are in the following order. The figures given in the Table are based on the production of  Liquor bottles as obtained from the excise department officials.  No Excise duty Label is affixed on the  filled with Beer bottles.


The above data will show that there is steep  increase in the production/ consumption of Liquor Bottles from the base year 2002- 03 in the order of  75 % to 562 %. This naturally reflect on the requirement of Excise Labels too. 

The Excise duty Labels are procured by the Karnataka Govt by floating Tenders. The Karnataka  Excise duty Label contains several security features some of which are shown in the illustration below. However the specification for the Hologram states the following:

Hologram Master type: High security Dot matrix
1) Type of Hologram: Hot stamping
2) Size : 14 mm x 14 mm
3) Place in the Excise Label: Center
4) Feature of Hologram:
a) State Emblem
b) Multi Channel effect
c) Concealed Image
d) Kinetic effect and Guilloche Pattern
e) Covert Laser readable image
f) Micro letters 

 
Karnataka Excise duty Label showing various elements 
of Security features as indicated in the Tender 

Based on the Production of Liquor Bottles, the requirement of   Excise duty Labels/ Stamps have  been worked out as indicated below.


As per the Excise dept officials the  production cost of the Excise Label appears to be around 5-6 paisa while they are issued to the distilleries at the rate of 10 paisa per label for affixing on the Liquor Bottles produced.


Kerala 

Excise department in Kerala also use Holographic Excise Labels whose production cost appears to be around 14-15 paisa. Only one variety of stamps is issued for use on all bottles. As per the projection the requirement is expected to go up by 17 %. Th production figure of various varieties of  Liquor is is given below.



The above data will show that there is gradual increase in the production/ consumption of Liquor Bottles from the base year 2002- 03 in the order of  10 % to 56 %. This naturally reflect on the requirement of Excise Labels too. We could not get the sample Labels or the specifications if any that has been floated as Tender inquiry for the supply of  Security Holographic Labels.

Based on the Production of Liquor Bottles, the requirement of  Labels/ Stamps have  been worked out as indicated below.

 The Excise dept in Kerala has been contemplating to introduce Holograms as Labels  with a facility to trace a bottle to the respective outlet from where it was sold. The proposed Hologram will include almost all security features now available on currency notes.  According to the officials these new  labels when put to use  would be impossible to replicate. Each bottle of Liquor sold will have to have this Hologram Label affixed over them.  Whether  they will be Excise duty Label or security featured Holographic Label is not correctly known. Whatever it is, the requirement of the Label will generate business to the Printers.
End Note:-
Based on the  data which appeared in Sify Finance news dated 24-08-2010, the following comparative statement has been generated to project  the   requirement of Excise duty Stamps/ Labels in the coming years. 

Important - Disclaimer: The writer does not assume responsibility for the data given for various states. All those have been obtained in personal meetings with various officials and the Print outs that we received, but were not signed even though some were hand written and given to us. Some information was also obtained from certain sites in internet.  Many officials in the Excise department were not willing to supply us the official copies as they considered the data to be confidential data.   However  the findings have been reproduced based on the data that we got in person, and in good faith though there is absolutely no reason to doubt that the data supplied to us will be incorrect.  At the most they may have some error margins.   The data  error margins could be 5 - 10 % as conversion from cases to bottles or bulk liters to bottles were difficult to work out since each state worked out the data  in their own  fashion. 
........to be continued

Sunday, May 26, 2013

Survey on Excise duty Labels/ Stamps - 2

Part-2

Written  by :  N.R. Jayaraman

The annual requirement of Excise duty Labels/ Stamps in different states were worked out basically on the production and sale of Liquor Bottles. The Liquor Bottles were in capacity of 100 ml, 200 ml, 350 ml, 500 ml and 1 litre. Since our survey was limited to the total quantity of labels required, the total no of bottles containing Liquors manufactured or produced for the state agencies that attracted Excise duty Labels/ Stamps were only accounted. If one tend to convert the liquors packed in the bottles into total volume of Liquor produced, the figure would run to several lakhs of liters alarming to us.

Delhi 

The Labels pasted over the Liquor bottles will have to  have the  manufacturers name and address besides having Excise duty Label of the state in which the Liquor was produced. Since the Delhi state do not manufacture the liquors within the state no Excise duty Labels/ Stamps of their were issued.  See the consumption of  Liquor bottles  over the period from 2002-03 till 2007-08 . This will be the basis for computing the requirement of Excise Labels.

 Delhi: Label on the Bottles indicate place of 
manufacture and also the  Excise duty  label of the 
state where they were manufactured
These  Excise duty Labels found on the bottles 
were not  issued by the Delhi State

Since the Production/manufactured figures were not available, the figures on the consumption of liquor in bottles was only taken into account. The above data shown will illustrate that the growth of requirement for the Excise duty Labels which  has been from  7 to 59 %  from the base year i.e 2002-03 to 2007-08.  The requirement of Label per month has gone up to 1.90 crore per month in 2007-08  from mere 1.19 crore Labels in 2002-03.

End note:-
  During the first six months of 2010, the consumption of liquor is reported to be 16 crore liquor cases as per  the Sunday Guardian News Paper report dated 26-05-2013 which works out as below.
1 case = 3 bottles. (though it is 3/4/6/12 bottles per case depending on size we always take minimum of 4  for calculation purpose )
Therefore 16 crore cases  x  4  bottles = 64 crore bottles.
Per month consumption = 64 /6 = 10.5  crore bottles
10.5  crore bottles means 10.5 crore Excise duty Labels or stamps per month !


From the year 2009  the state has decided to issue Excise duty Labels/ Stamps of their own. The Excise department official opines that the  use of holograms as Excise Duty Labels in bottles have checked the sale of spurious liquor and has in turn increased alcohol consumption which in turn  account for the increased demand of  printing of Excise  duty Labels which they propose to print in India Security Press, Nashik.  

Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh

The issue of Excise Labels were proposed to be introduced by the Haryana Govts w.e.f . 2009.  The requirement per month was anticipated to be 5 crore labels per month as per the Excise department officials. 
Since Haryana state did not manufacture the liquors within the state no Excise duty Labels/ Stamps of their were earlier issued.  

The following graph will show the  quantity of bottles used  consumed in Haryana alone  so that the future requirement could be worked out whenever the state commence issuing Excise duty Label of their own.  However all the Liquor  bottles imported into these two states  were to be pasted with label with caption 'For use in Haryana only' and 'For use in Punjab only'.

  


 

 Haryana & Punjab : Label on the Bottles indicating place of 
manufacture and caption reading  ' For sale in Haryana Only' and 
'For sale in Punjab only' with other state Excise duty  labels
 where they were manufactured

The above data shown will illustrate that the  requirement for the Excise duty Labels has been steadily going up from 7 to 123 % till 2007-08 from the base year i.e 2002-03. The requirement of Label per month has gone up to 2.66 crore per month in 2007-08  from mere 1.19 crore Labels in the base year 2002-03. From the year 2009 the state has decided to issue Excise duty Labels/ Stamps of their own. 

End note:- The figures for Punjab and Chandigarh were not available. The liquor consumed in both the states were brought from outside the state and  therefore did not warrant Excise duty Labels.  However it is understood that both the States have decided to issue Excise Labels from the year 2009 onwards and accordingly  Punjab state Excise dept has floated tender inviting supply of  Hologram and Excise Adhesive Labels for the period 2010-11  to be affixed on Liquor bottles of Punjab Medium Liquor (PML)  and Indian Made Foreign Liquor (IMFL). The tender states that the annual requirement will be 50 crore labels approximately which works out to 4.2 crore per month. Similarly the tender issued by the Chandigarh mentions the requirement of Excise duty Labels as approximately  0.85 crore Labels per month. This therefore puts the projected  requirement of  Excise duty Liquor Labels of all the three states to  2.66 +4.2 + 0.85 = 7.71 or roughly 7.8 crore labels per month  which simultaneously will speak the volume of liquor expected to be consumed.
 
The specification of Labels for Punjab as per the tender floated states the following features as requirement for Paper based Labels.
1. Intaglio Printing
2. Intaglio Rub Mark
3. Micro Lettering
4. Six Colour printing with Online Numbering
5. 12 Digit sequential numbers to be generated through electronic mode to be printed on every label as specified by the Excise and Taxation Commissioner. Three numbers of check digits to be generated out of 12 digits serial numbers of the same label through software by using mathematical formula. These 3 numbers to be printed on the label by using computerized variable data printed machine.
6. Specimen signature of the Deputy Excise & Taxation Commissioner (D)
7. Guilloche Design.
8. Emblem of Government of Punjab
9. Secret Code.
10. Printer Code.
11. Visible Fluorescent Ink.
12. Micro Printing with U.V.Ink
13. Nano printing
14. Die Punching
15. Colour Changing Ink
16. Any other Security Ink or security feature that may be considered useful.

One piece of information by way of interest here. The quantity of Labels does not reflect the quantum of Liquor
consumed which will be much more as the bottles range in capacities like 100 ml, 200ml, 350 ml, 500ml and 1 Liter !!

.....to be continued